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GH. is a 26-year-old male who was involved in a serious motorcycle accident that fractured his vertebrae and compressed his spinal cord

GH. is a 26-year-old male who was involved in a serious motorcycle accident that fractured his vertebrae and compressed his spinal cord

Choose ONE of the following questions:

Option 1

  1. GH. is a 26-year-old male who was involved in a serious motorcycle accident that fractured his vertebrae and compressed his spinal cord at the level of T8. Answer the following questions:
  2. What is spinal shock? How long can it last? Why is it difficult to determine the degree of injury and impairment during this time frame?
  3. Immediately after this injury, what should you expect to occur for each of the following:
    1. Range of movement for his arms? For his legs? Why?
    2. Spastic or flaccid paralysis? Why?
    3. Bowel and/or bladder dysfunction? Why or why not?
    4. Breathing difficulties? Why or why not?
  4. After the period of spinal shock, what changes should you expect to see (if any) in the manifestations listed in #2 above?
  5. What type of rehabilitative treatments might G. H. need to promote his recovery and return to function?
  6. If G. H. has mild-to-moderate chronic back pain one year after his accident, explain the pain management medications you would suggest to improve his quality of life and why you selected those particular medications.

Option 2

How would you determine which of the following pain medication(s) to give a patient who:

  1. Has just had breast augmentation surgery?
  2. Has chronic neck and back pain from a car accident?
  3. Has terminal metastatic cancer?
  4. Had their wisdom teeth removed?
  5. Suffers from migraines?
  6. Has rheumatoid arthritis?

Use the opioid conversion table found in your text, and the following chart to assist you:

AnalgesicStrengthEquivalent dose
(relative)(10 mg Oral morphine)
Aspirin (non-opioid)1/3603600 mg
Ibuprofen (NSAID, non-opioid)1/2222220 mg
Naproxen (NSAID, non-opioid)1/1381380 mg
Dextropropoxyphene1/13 to 1/20130–200 mg
Codeine1/10180 mg (PO)
Tramadol1/10>200 mg
Pethidine (meperidine hydrochloride)1/330 mg SC/IM/IV, 300 mg PO
Hydrocodone110 mg
Morphine (oral)(1)(10 mg) (30 mg PO)
Oxycodone1.56.67 mg
Morphine (IV/IM)33.33 mg
Methadone (acute)3–42.5–3.33 mg
Diamorphine (Heroin; IV/IM)4–52–2.5 mg
Hydromorphone51.5 mg SC/IV/IM, 7.5 mg PO
Oxymorphone710 mg PO, 1 mg IV
Methadone (chronic)2.5 to 53.33  mg
Fentanyl50–1000.1 mg (100 mcg) IM/IV

 

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Option 1

  1. What is spinal shock? How long can it last? Why is it difficult to determine the degree of injury and impairment during this time frame?

Spinal shock is a combination of reflex and neurological concerns caused by the autonomic and hyporeflexia dysfunctional which in many cases usually leads to spinal cord injury (Ditunno et al., 2004). The spinal shock can last up to six weeks and typically begin after…………………..

APA 648 words

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