Summary and critical evaluation of two research articles:

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Comment on their evaluation of the research and what you personally learned from it. Do you think the research is methodologically robust? Why or why not?


  1. Summary and critical evaluation of two research articles:

There are several medical conditions that can mimic or cause anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. According to an article from the NCBI, Some associations between anxiety disorders and cardiac disease, hypertension, gastrointestinal problems, genitourinary disorders, and migraines have been found in patients recruited from treatment and community sources (Witthauer Et Al., 2014). One of the main medical conditions is cardiac disease. Cardiac disease can cause many different problems, especially in a patient with anxiety. Some symptoms of cardiac disease and anxiety disorder can be an elevate heart rate. This has been the experience of most people when having an anxiety attack or a myocardial infarction. I have had this experience. When I was about 26 y/o, I developed anxiety disorder because of the constant stress of being an EMT and seeing people in their worse conditions. I was able to rule out cardiac disease because I went to see multiple physicians and specialists before I finally went and saw a psychologist. This can be a scary time for people when they experience this symptom.

There are other things that are believed to cause Obsessive-Compulsive disorder. In the article on Anti-brain antibodies, the authors discuss how auto-immune diseases can possibly cause Obsessive-compulsive disorder. According to the article, An autoimmune hypothesis has been suggested for a subtype of Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) with childhood onset: obsessions, compulsions and/or tics would result from anti-streptococcal antibodies that cross-react with basal ganglia tissue based on molecular mimicry (Maina Et Al., 2009). The scientists believe that some of what people may have been introduced to, in the way of infections, can cause a person to develop at a young age, Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. This discovery could cause a patient to develop several different problems psychologically. After the infection has been cleared up by antibiotics, the person could develop phobias. Phobias of germs and certain situations could lead the person to perform different acts such as intense hand washing or repetitive behaviors after the infection is gone. Autoimmune diseases can be very traumatic to the human brain. The infections, if not caught in a timely manner, can long-term effects on the patient or client.

Are the findings sufficiently robust to persuade you? If not, what is needed? If unsure, how could you get your questions answered?

I found the articles that I read were in fact highly informative. They gave ampul information after stating their hypothesis. The reason I choose the articles is because of the multiple authors. I have found that when a research article is written and published by many different authors or scientists, then the article has more validity. The different perspectives from the different scientists all coming together on a single idea is fascinating. I looked up the articles on google scholar. I have found that if a person puts in the correct parameters, such as peer reviewed, a person will have no problem finding great articles to support their ideas and hypothesis.

Ethnic or cultural controversies are factors to consider when teasing out the etiology of anxiety and obsessive-compulsions related to this medical concern?

According to the DSM-5, there appears to be no ethnic or cultural controversies when teasing out or trying to rouse the client into admitting to the disorder. The prevalence of these disorders is seen in every culture or ethnic background. The disorders are more common in people with a first or second generation of a history of OCD or Anxiety. Most common is the anxiety and the OCD is genetically inherited. Although not all offspring will develop the disorder.

  1. Summary and critical evaluation of two research articles:

When seeing symptoms of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder, hyperthyroidism should be kept in mind. Cognitive and behavioral impairments are common in patients with abnormal thyroid functioning. These impairments can cause a reduction in their quality of life. Patients with hyperthyroidism are often nervous, irritable, and impulsive. Most times, they cannot control their inappropriate behavior and negative emotions (Yuan et al., 2015). Hermann and Quarton (1965) studied hyperthyroid patients by the means of psychiatric interview and a symptom checklist. They gathered symptoms that included heightened anxiety without perceived threat or conflict and memory impairment in the sense of lowered ability to focus attention and/or screen out irrelevant input (Wallace, MacCrimmon, & Goldberg, 1980). Hyperthyroid women experienced anxiety, depression, and general psychological distress.

Are the findings sufficiently robust to persuade you? If not, what is needed? If unsure, how could you get your questions answered?

The findings are not sufficiently robust to persuade me. Based off of the symptoms Marvin was exhibiting I would still say he would be diagnosed with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Marvin was experiencing a lot of repetitive and bizarre behaviors. Those symptoms would need to be included in the medical concern for that to influence the diagnosis. The research was very informative and insightful. Marvin does experience symptoms of heightened anxiety, irritability, and impulsiveness and those are symptoms of hyperthyroidism.

Ethnic or cultural controversies are factors to consider when teasing out the etiology of anxiety and obsessive-compulsions related to this medical concern?

The following are ethnic and cultural factors to be considered related to hyperthyroidism. This medical condition is most common among Caucasian individuals, but all ethnic groups can get this condition. Females get it at a higher rate than males and it is common in middle-aged people and older adults. Hyperthyroidism tends to run in families, therefore, there is a likely hood you could get this medical condition if your mother or father have thyroid functioning issues (Wallace et al., 1980; Yuan et al., 2015).




For the next two discussion post replies, ask questions to understand the learner(s)’ point of view in terms of theoretical preference. minimum of 150 words


  1. Client-centered therapy and Adlerian psychotherapy are similar and different in many ways. On the surface level, these two theories appear to be very similar. Both Adlerian and client-centered therapy strive to understand client behavior and focus on their goals (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). Both theories also prioritize gathering information from the client to provide them with trust, empathy, and guidance (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). Another main component of these two theories is the role of the therapist. In Adlerian and client-centered therapy, the therapist must be present with the client to fully understand and communicate in order to assist with growth and healing (Wedding & Corsini, 2019).

These forms of therapy have a few differences. To begin, the main difference I noticed was multicultural issues. Adlerian therapy focuses on family dynamic and structure quite a bit, and this could be an issue for those that do not feel comfortable sharing private information about their families (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). Client-centered therapy is more broad in the sense that it can be used worldwide (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). Another difference is that client-centered therapy is less structured than Adlerian therapy (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). Finally, client-centered therapy is appropriate for both group therapy and one-on-one therapy while Adlerian is only able to be done one-on-one (Wedding & Corsini, 2019).

Strengths of Adlerian therapy include, collaborating with the client to understand their goals, encouraging the client to define themselves, focusing on social relationships, and having holistic views (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). Weaknesses of Adlerian therapy include multicultural issues (especially with family dynamic and structure), and some clients may feel that sharing information about their family is too private (Wedding & Corsini, 2019).

Strengths of client-centered therapy include that it is useful in group therapy as well as individual sessions and it is sensitive to multicultural concerns so it can be used world-wide among many cultures (Wedding & Corsini, 2019). On the other hand, weaknesses include, this form of therapy could be considered too indirect for some, those seeking structured treatment plans may be disappointed with the lack of structure this therapy provides, and this form of therapy is not considered a quick fix for issues (Wedding & Corsini, 2019).

  1. Adlerian Psychotherapy and Client-Centered Therapy

Adlerian psychotherapy and client-centered therapy have both similarities and differences. Both treatments stress empathy and respect. In addition, both treatments include exploration and summary (Adlerian Analysis, n.d.; Person-Centered Counseling, n.d.). On the other hand, Adlerian therapy sessions include asking more questions that lead to insight (Adlerian Analysis, n.d.), while client-centered therapy includes more listening and reflecting (Person-Centered Counseling, n.d.). In addition to this, Adlerian therapy sessions include more affirmations, goal-setting, and early recollection than client-centered therapy sessions. Overall, client-centered therapy includes more listening and exploration time than Adlerian therapy, which includes more questions leading to insight, affirmations, goal-setting, and early recollection (Adlerian Analysis, n.d.; Person-Centered Counseling, n.d.).

Adlerian Psychotherapy: Strengths and Weaknesses

Adlerian psychotherapy has clear strengths and weaknesses. On one hand, Adlerian therapy is flexible (Sperry, 2016), it is able to adapt to client needs and culture, and it can be used in diverse settings (Wedding & Corsini, 2018). On the other hand, however, intervention is its weakness, because Adlerian psychotherapy has no clear intervention of its own. In addition to this, it is not evidence-based (Sperry, 2016).

Client-Centered Therapy: Strengths and Weaknesses

Like Adlerian psychotherapy, client-centered therapy has both strengths and weaknesses. On a positive note, client-centered therapy is supported by research, and it has a large impact on the field of counseling. However, it does not take into account the impact of cultural differences. In addition, it is limited by the fact that client-centered therapy only works if the therapist truly empathizes with the clients. This is because Carl Rodgers created his therapy with the assumption that therapists truly care. However, this may not always be the case (Kensit, 2000).


Subject:  Psychology


And just to clarify…the instructions above are for EACH discussion post. 4 total and a minimum of 200 words per response to each discussion post


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